Cow (Cattle) was one of the first few species domesticated by humans (or evolving modern humans) after dogs and horses. Few civilizations like Aryans and Indian were so much dependent on cattle over a period of time that they started worshiping them like mother and Goddess.
The designation of mother was given because of her ability to give milk which was suitable for human consumption. Milk and its products then became one of the base material for almost all Indian food and sweets, which we still have.
Cattle dung as manure for agriculture systems. Before industrialization the main source of manure for agriculture was cattle dung, which was decomposed in specific ways by Indians and used in their fields. Still the modern concept of Organic farming promotes this way which was earlier used in all Indian subcontinent.
Medicinal and Pesticide properties of cow urine. In Ayurveda (An Indian system of healing) there are many uses of cow urine. Cow urine can be fermented with some herbs like Neem and Mahua to make effective pesticide for agriculture.
Indian agriculture has variety. There is no farm-product that we don’t cultivate. Our land grows all kinds of grains, pulses, vegetables, fruits, flowers, cotton and silk.About 70% of our population has embraced agriculture as profession. Cattle are integral part of the huge canvas of agriculture. We use oxen to plough, to pick and move harvested crops, in irrigation, cow manure as fertilizer, and cow urine as insecticide.
Unique Role of Cow in Agriculture
1. In our country with small holdings and small scale farming, there is no better alternative to employing cattle in farming.
2. While ploughing, the oxen stride with gentle gait, not harming the surface of the earth, unlike tractors. Even as they plough the land, the oxen defecate and urinate, fertilising the land.
3. Cattle Manure : organic manure, green leaf manure, earth-worms, and slurry manure with cattle manure bond with the nature and make the land fertile. They do not create the challenge of chemical waste.
4. 99% of the insects in nature are beneficial to the system. Insecticides prepared from cow urine or well fermented butter milk do not affect these helpful insects.
5. Dung from one cow is adequate to fertilise 5 acres of land and its urine is can protect 10 acres of crop from insects. As per the Supreme Court, cow dung produced by one oxen can support a family for 4 years. Oxen do not pollute the atmosphere.
6. Fertilizers made from Cow-dung and Cow-urine increases the quality and yield of crops. Fertilizer made from Cow-dung saves water to the extent of 5-times compared to using other fertilizers.